Tobacco dependence, responsible for ∼4 million annual deaths worldwide, is considered to be a "pediatric disease." The smoking epidemic is spreading rapidly in developing countries. Factors contributing to youth smoking in developing countries include cultural traditions, tobacco's easy accessibility and moderate pricing, peer and family influences, and tobacco companies' advertisements and promotional activities. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is a substantial problem that causes increased rates of pneumonia, otitis media, asthma, and other short- and long-term pediatric conditions. Parental tobacco use results in children's deprivation of essential needs such as nutrition and education. In this article we review contemporary evidence with respect to the etiology of nicotine dependence among youth, the forms of youth tobacco products worldwide, global youth tobacco-control efforts to date, medical education efforts, and child health care clinicians' special role in youth tobacco-control strategies. In addition, we provide a review of currently available funding opportunities for development and implementation of youth tobacco-control programs.