Yield of leafy greens and microclimate in Deep Winter Greenhouse production in Minnesota

Claire Flavin Hodge, Mary A Rogers, Dan Handeen, Greg Schweser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The Deep Winter Greenhouse (DWG) uses passive solar technology to create an environment where cold tolerant crops like leafy greens can be grown during the winter to satisfy consumer demand for fresh local produce year-round and increase revenue for farmers. A cultivar trial consisting of 12 different salad greens was conducted in partnership with three farmers in order to determine suitable cultivars for these unique systems. Yield and days to maturity were recorded, and microclimate conditions such as light, temperature, and relative humidity were tracked throughout the season. This study included three sites from three distinct locations within Minnesota. Environmental differences among the DWG sites and within site replicates were observed. Yield also varied with micro-climate. The trials demonstrate that lettuces and greens such as 'Florence' (Lactuca sativa L.), 'Salanova' (Lactuca sativa L.), and 'Vitamin Green' (Brassica rapa L.) generally grow well. These cultivar trials, coupled with other horticultural trials and economic analyses, will better inform recommendations for farmers growing in these unique environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number28
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This material is based upon work that is supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under award number 2017-38640-26916 through the North Central Region SARE program under project number LNC17-395. USDA is an equal opportunity employer and service provider. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 by the authors.


  • Asian greens (Brassica rapa)
  • Controlled environment agriculture
  • Cultivar trial
  • Deep Winter Greenhouse
  • Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)
  • Organic vegetable production
  • Season extension
  • Winter production


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