Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant, yet under-recognized cause of death in the pediatric population, with a WHO estimate of 1 million new cases of childhood TB in 2016 resulting in 250,000 deaths. Diagnosis is notoriously difficult; manifestations are protean due to the high proportion of cases of extra-pulmonary TB in children, and logistical problems exist in obtaining suitable specimens. These issues are compounded by the paucibacillary nature of disease with the result that an estimated 96% of pediatric TB-associated mortality occurs prior to commencing anti-tuberculous treatment. Further development of sensitive, rapid diagnostic tests and their incorporation into diagnostic algorithms is vital in this population, and central to the WHO End-TB strategy. Initial gains were made with the expansion of nucleic acid amplification technology, particularly the introduction of the GeneXpert fully-automated PCR Xpert MTB/Rif assay in 2010, and more recently, the Xpert MTB/Rif Ultra (Ultra) assay in 2017. Ultra provides increased analytical sensitivity when compared with the initial Xpert assay in vitro; a finding now also supported by six clinical studies to date, two of which included pediatric samples. Here, we review the published evidence for the performance of Ultra in TB diagnosis in children, as well as studies in adults with paucibacillary disease providing results relevant to the pediatric population. Following on from this, we speculate upon future directions for Ultra, with focus on its potential use with alternative diagnostic specimens, which may be of particular utility in children.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
FC is an honorary fellow of the Makerere University-Uganda Virus Research Institute Center of Excellence for Infection and Immunity Research and Training (MUII-plus). MUII-plus is supported through the DELTAS Africa Initiative (Grant no. 107743). The DELTAS Africa Initiative is an independent funding scheme of the African Academy of Sciences (AAS), Alliance for Accelerating Excellence in Science in Africa (AESA), and supported by the New Partnership for Africa's Development Planning and Coordinating Agency (NEPAD Agency) with funding from the Wellcome Trust (Grant no. 107743) and the UK Government. DB is supported by National Institute of Neurologic Diseases and Stroke (R01 NS086312).
© 2019 Atherton, Cresswell, Ellis, Kitaka and Boulware.