Women’s Knowledge of Bladder Health: What We Have Learned in the Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (PLUS) Research Consortium

Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (PLUS) Research Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of Review: The goal of this manuscript is to review the current literature on bladder health education, summarize Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (PLUS) findings on environmental factors that influence knowledge and beliefs about toileting and bladder function, and describe how PLUS work will contribute to improved understanding of women’s bladder-related knowledge and inform prevention intervention strategies. Recent Findings: Analysis of focus group transcripts revealed the various ways women view, experience, and describe bladder function. In the absence of formal bladder health educational platforms, women appear to develop knowledge of normal and abnormal bladder function from a variety of social processes including environmental cues and interpersonal sources. Importantly, focus group participants expressed frustration with the absence of structured bladder education to inform knowledge and practices. Summary: There is a lack of bladder health educational programming in the USA, and it is unknown to what degree women’s knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs influence their risk of developing lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The PLUS Consortium RISE FOR HEALTH study will estimate the prevalence of bladder health in adult women and assess risk and protective factors. A Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs (KAB) questionnaire will be administered to determine KAB around bladder function, toileting, and bladder-related behaviors, and examine the relationship of KAB to bladder health and LUTS. The data generated from PLUS studies will identify opportunities for educational strategies to improve bladder health promotion and well-being across the life course.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)188-195
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Bladder Dysfunction Reports
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
M.A. Brault reports grant K01TW011480 from the Fogarty International Center at NIH, outside the submitted work.

Funding Information:
A.S. James reports grants from NIH, during the conduct of the study; grants from NCI, outside the submitted work.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) by cooperative agreements (grants U24DK106786, U01 DK106853, U01 DK106858, U01 DK106898, U01 DK106893, U01 DK106827, U01 DK106908, U01 DK106892, U01 DK126045). Additional funding from National Institute on Aging, NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Bladder education
  • Bladder health
  • Bladder knowledge
  • Incontinence prevention
  • Toileting
  • Women’s health


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