Women's Angiographic Vitamin and Estrogen trial: Design and methods

Judith Hsia, Edwin L. Alderman, Joel I. Verter, William J. Rogers, Paul Thompson, Barbara V. Howard, Frederick R. Cobb, Pamela Ouyang, Jean Claude Tardif, Lyall Higginson, Vera Bittner, Ivan Barofsky, Michael Steffes, David J. Gordon, Michael Proschan, Naji Younes, David Waters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The Women's Angiographic Vitamin and Estrogen trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to test the efficacy of estrogen replacement and antioxidant vitamins for preventing angiographic progression of coronary artery disease. Postmenopausal women with one or more angiographically documented coronary stenoses of 15-75% at baseline were assigned in a 2×2 factorial randomization to active hormone replacement therapy (conjugated estrogens for women who had had a hysterectomy or conjugated estrogens with medroxyprogesterone for women with intact uteri) or placebo and to active vitamins E and C or their placebos. Seven clinical centers, five in the United States and two in Canada, randomized 423 women between July 1997 and July 1999. Quantitative coronary angiography was performed at baseline and repeated after projected mean follow-up of 3 years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)708-727
Number of pages20
JournalControlled clinical trials
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2002

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by NIH contracts NO1-HV-68165, NO1-HV-68166, NO1-HV-68167, NO1-HV-68168, NO1-HV-68169, NO1-HV-68170.


  • Antioxidants
  • Coronary angiography
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Estrogen


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