Women, motivation, and achievement

Janet Shibley Hyde, Kristen C. Kling

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

110 Scopus citations


Women's educational and occupational achievements are crucial to the economic productivity and prosperity of the nation, as well as to the mental health of women and their families. In this article we review psychological research on motivation and on educational achievement, focusing on gender and the contributions that have been made by feminist researchers. Feminist psychologists noted the sex bias and methodological flaws in traditional research on achievement motivation and proposed vastly improved models, such as Eccles's expectancy x value model of achievement behavior. Contrary to stereotypes, gender similarities are typically found in areas such as mathematics performance. Policymakers should be concerned about gender bias in the SAT and about the Female Underprediction Effect. Additional threats to girls' and women's achievements include stereotype threat and peer sexual harassment in the schools.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)364-378
Number of pages15
JournalPsychology of Women Quarterly
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2001

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