Smoking is still the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality. This paper examines new research on gender differences and the epidemiology of smoking, smoking-related morbidity and mortality, and factors that affect smoking cessation. The rate of decline in the prevalence of smoking has been slowing, especially among adolescent girls. New research suggests that, compared with men, women may be more susceptible to smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Gender-related barriers to smoking cessation include weight gain, sex hormones, and mood. Furthermore, the sensory aspects of smoking may have more of an effect on smoking treatment for women than for men. We discuss new studies that examine smoking-cessation interventions that may be particularly beneficial for women, including exercise (as an adjunct intervention), very low nicotine content cigarettes, and a variety of pharmacotherapy. Further research is needed to identify and target the gender-specific needs of smokers.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project was supported by NIH/NIDA/OWHR P50-DA033942, NIH/NIDA R01-DA024872, and NIH/NIDA R01-DA008075.
This project was supported by NIH/NIDA/OWHR P50-DA033942, NIH/NIDA R01-DA024872, and NIH/NIDA R01-DA008075. ? Alicia M. Allen, Cheryl Oncken, and Dorothy Hatsukami declare that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
© 2014, Springer International Publishing AG.
- Health Effects
- Sex Hormones