Tobacco smoking remains the most common preventable cause of death and disability in the United States. Although greatly decreased since the 1960s, the prevalence of smoking among women continues to be problematic because of the absolute prevalence and the continued increase in illnesses that take a long time to manifest (eg, lung cancer) in former smokers. Although no consensus exists, a number of research studies, meta-analyses, and reviews have concluded that quitting smoking appears to be more difficult for women than men. For example, in studies of medications to aid smoking cessation, women tend to have less success than men in maintaining longer-term cessation. Research has identified barriers and facilitators of smoking cessation specific to women and special populations of women (eg, minorities, pregnant women). There is a continued need for additional attention to the process of quitting smoking for women.