Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring.

Christopher J. Kimble, David M. Johnson, Bruce A. Winter, Sidney V. Whitlock, Kenneth R. Kressin, April E. Horne, Justin C. Robinson, Jonathan M. Bledsoe, Susannah J. Tye, Su Youne Chang, Filippo Agnesi, Christoph J. Griessenauer, Daniel Covey, Young Min Shon, Kevin E. Bennet, Paul A. Garris, Kendall H. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


The Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) measures extracellular neurotransmitter concentration in vivo and displays the data graphically in nearly real time. WINCS implements two electroanalytical methods, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and fixed-potential amperometry (FPA), to measure neurotransmitter concentrations at an electrochemical sensor, typically a carbon-fiber microelectrode. WINCS comprises a battery-powered patient module and a custom software application (WINCSware) running on a nearby personal computer. The patient module impresses upon the electrochemical sensor either a constant potential (for FPA) or a time-varying waveform (for FSCV). A transimpedance amplifier converts the resulting current to a signal that is digitized and transmitted to the base station via a Bluetooth radio link. WINCSware controls the operational parameters for FPA or FSCV, and records the transmitted data stream. Filtered data is displayed in various formats, including a background-subtracted plot of sequential FSCV scans - a representation that enables users to distinguish the signatures of various analytes with considerable specificity. Dopamine, glutamate, adenosine and serotonin were selected as analytes for test trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow-injection measurements and in vivo measurements in rat and pig. Further testing demonstrated basic functionality in a 3-Tesla MRI unit. WINCS was designed in compliance with consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, and it is anticipated that its capability for real-time intraoperative monitoring of neurotransmitter release at an implanted sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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