Wind can reduce storage-induced emissions at grid scales

Mo Li, Yi Yang, Timothy M. Smith, Elizabeth J Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Energy storage provides many benefits that can improve electric grid performance but has been shown to increase overall system emissions. Yet, how energy storage might interreact with renewables in existing grids and how these interactions affect overall emissions remain unclear. Here, we estimate emissions induced by battery energy storage in two regions of the United States with very different levels of wind penetration using high-resolution, both spatially and temporally, locational marginal prices and hourly marginal emission factors. We find that the emission intensity of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and mercury is 4264% lower in the high wind penetration grid (28%) than in the low wind penetration grid (<5%). This is due in part to a significant share of wind dispatched as marginal fuel in baseload hours when battery storage charges from the grid, reducing storage-induced emissions. Our study suggests that more wind generation can favorably pair with storage and reduce the air pollution burdens otherwise caused by storage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number115420
JournalApplied Energy
StatePublished - Oct 15 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd


  • Battery storage
  • Grid penetration
  • Marginal emissions
  • Renewable energy


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