Why methylene blue have to be always present in the stocking of emergency antidotes

Caroline F Baldo, Luiza M. Silva, Livia Arcêncio, Agnes A.S. Albuquerque, Andrea C. Celotto, Anibal Basile-Filho, Paulo R.B. Evora

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Evidence-based review of the existing literature ultimately recommends stocking of Methylene Blue (MB) as an emergency antidote in the United States. The same is reported around the world in Japan, Greece, Italy and Canada. The observation that MB is always present as the main antidote required in emergency and critical care units calls for a revisit on its effects on the NO/cGMP system to reemphasize its multisystem actions. Therefore, the present review aimed to display the role of MB in emergency units, concerning: 1) Polytrauma and circulatory shock; 2) Neuroprotection, 3) Anaphylaxis and, 4) Overdose and poisoning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1550-1559
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Drug Targets
Issue number13
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported in part by CNPq, FAPESP and FAEPA.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Bentham Science Publishers.


  • Anaphylaxis
  • CGMP
  • Circulatory shock
  • Methylene blue
  • Neuroprotection
  • Nitric oxide
  • Poisoning


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