Whole-Grain Intake Correlates among Adolescents and Young Adults: Findings from Project EAT

Nicole I Larson, Dianne R Neumark-Sztainer, Mary T Story, Teri Burgess-Champoux

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: National survey data indicate few adolescents or young adults consume whole grains in the amount recommended to prevent chronic disease and maintain a healthful weight. Interventions are needed to address this gap; however, little is known about what modifiable factors influence whole-grain intake among youth. Objective: This study aimed to identify socioenvironmental, personal, and behavioral correlates of whole-grain intake among adolescents and young adults. Design: Data for this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-II, the second wave of a population-based study in Minnesota. Mailed surveys and food frequency questionnaires were completed by male (44.8%) and female (55.2%) participants in 2003-2004, including 792 adolescents (mean age=17.2 years) and 1,686 young adults (mean age=20.5 years). Linear regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics were used to identify factors associated with energy-adjusted daily intake of whole grains. Results: Mean daily intake of whole grains was lower than recommended among adolescents (males: 0.59±0.04 servings, females: 0.61±0.04 servings) and young adults (males: 0.68±0.03 servings, females: 0.58±0.03 servings). Home availability of whole-grain bread, self-efficacy to consume ≥3 daily servings of whole grains, and preference for the taste of whole-grain bread were positively associated with whole-grain intake during adolescence and young adulthood across sex. Conversely, fast-food intake was associated with lower intake of whole grains among adolescents and young adults of both sexes. The factors examined in this study explained 28% to 34% of variance in whole-grain intake across sex and the two age groups. Conclusions: The findings suggest nutrition interventions should address the availability of whole-grain foods in homes and restaurants. In addition, young people should be provided with opportunities to taste a variety of whole-grain foods to enhance taste preferences and self-efficacy to consume whole-grain products.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)230-237
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Dietetic Association
Volume110
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2010

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grain consumption
whole grain foods
young adults
Young Adult
Eating
ingestion
self-efficacy
food choices
breads
gender
fast foods
nutritional intervention
grain products
sociodemographic characteristics
national surveys
restaurants
Bread
food frequency questionnaires
Self Efficacy
Whole Grains

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Whole-Grain Intake Correlates among Adolescents and Young Adults : Findings from Project EAT. / Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R; Story, Mary T; Burgess-Champoux, Teri.

In: Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 110, No. 2, 01.02.2010, p. 230-237.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: National survey data indicate few adolescents or young adults consume whole grains in the amount recommended to prevent chronic disease and maintain a healthful weight. Interventions are needed to address this gap; however, little is known about what modifiable factors influence whole-grain intake among youth. Objective: This study aimed to identify socioenvironmental, personal, and behavioral correlates of whole-grain intake among adolescents and young adults. Design: Data for this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-II, the second wave of a population-based study in Minnesota. Mailed surveys and food frequency questionnaires were completed by male (44.8{\%}) and female (55.2{\%}) participants in 2003-2004, including 792 adolescents (mean age=17.2 years) and 1,686 young adults (mean age=20.5 years). Linear regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics were used to identify factors associated with energy-adjusted daily intake of whole grains. Results: Mean daily intake of whole grains was lower than recommended among adolescents (males: 0.59±0.04 servings, females: 0.61±0.04 servings) and young adults (males: 0.68±0.03 servings, females: 0.58±0.03 servings). Home availability of whole-grain bread, self-efficacy to consume ≥3 daily servings of whole grains, and preference for the taste of whole-grain bread were positively associated with whole-grain intake during adolescence and young adulthood across sex. Conversely, fast-food intake was associated with lower intake of whole grains among adolescents and young adults of both sexes. The factors examined in this study explained 28{\%} to 34{\%} of variance in whole-grain intake across sex and the two age groups. Conclusions: The findings suggest nutrition interventions should address the availability of whole-grain foods in homes and restaurants. In addition, young people should be provided with opportunities to taste a variety of whole-grain foods to enhance taste preferences and self-efficacy to consume whole-grain products.",
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