Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is a major pathogen affecting cattle worldwide causing primarily respiratory illness referred to as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), along with reproductive disorders including abortion and infertility in cattle. While modified live vaccines (MLVs) effectively induce immune response against BoHV-1, they are implicated in disease outbreaks in cattle. Current diagnostic methods cannot distinguish between MLVs and field strains of BoHV-1. We performed whole genome sequencing of 18 BoHV-1 isolates from Pennsylvania and Minnesota along with five BoHV-1 vaccine strains using the Illumina Miseq platform. Based on nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) the sequences were clustered into three groups with two different vaccine groups and one distinct cluster of field isolates. Using this information, we developed a novel SNP-based PCR assay that can allow differentiation of vaccine and clinical strains and help accurately determine the incidence of BoHV-1 and the association of MLVs with clinical disease in cattle.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was funded by the Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture. The authors wish to thank Craig Praul, Kerry Hair, and the staff of the Penn State Genomics Core Facility for library preparation and whole genome sequencing services.
© 2018 Elsevier Inc.
- Bovine Herpesvirus-1
- Complete genomes
- SNP based PCR assay
- SNP profiles