This review paper considers the connection between employment and criminal behavior. We first examine theories that suggest a link between work and crime at different life course stages. Next, longitudinal studies and statistical approaches to specifying the relationship are discussed. Results of existing studies are organized into discussions of work intensity and adolescent delinquency, job characteristics and crime, and unemployment and crime rates.We then offer a more focused discussion of ex-offenders and reentry. The paper concludes with a brief summary of what has been learned, suggesting that investments in longitudinal investigations have yielded important new knowledge about when and how work matters for crime and delinquency.