Waterpipe tobacco Dependence in U.K. male adult residents: A cross-sectional study

Saba Kassim, Ali Al-Bakri, Mustafa al Absi, Ray Croucher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Introduction: The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WPTS) is increasing worldwide. The aims of this study were (a) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11), and (b) to assess, estimate, and identify factors associated with waterpipe tobacco dependence symptoms among U.K. male adult resident waterpipe tobacco smokers. Methods: A total of 180 waterpipe tobacco smokers were recruited during random visits to 7 outlets serving waterpipe tobacco. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews using the WPTS module of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey and the LWDS-11. Descriptive statistics, exploratory psychometric, univariate, and Poisson regression analysis were employed. Results: Participants' M/SD age was 29.46/±9.41 years, Arabic ethnicity accounted for 58.3%, and 53.9% had completed more than secondary education. Psychometric analyses for the LWDS-10, after removing 1 item from the generic scale, revealed Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.74. About 47% of the sample demonstrated waterpipe tobacco dependence. Being Arab (p = .040, OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.05-6.62), smoking waterpipe daily in the past (p = .003, OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.30-3.49), and an increase in length in the last session of WPTS (p = .044, OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.00-1.32) were identified as risk factors for waterpipe tobacco dependence. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the potential of LWDS-11 and revealed 2 domains: positive and negative reinforcement and physiological dependence. Results indicated that waterpipe tobacco smokers in the United Kingdom demonstrated tobacco dependence symptoms, which were associated with socio-behavioral factors. Generalizability of these findings and their implications in public health are yet to be investigated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)316-325
Number of pages10
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2014


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