Walking, Gross Motor Development, and Brain Functional Connectivity in Infants and Toddlers

Natasha Marrus, Adam T. Eggebrecht, Alexandre Todorov, Jed T. Elison, Jason J. Wolff, Lyndsey Cole, Wei Gao, Juhi Pandey, Mark D. Shen, Meghan R. Swanson, Robert W. Emerson, Cheryl L. Klohr, Chloe M. Adams, Annette M. Estes, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Kelly N. Botteron, Robert C. McKinstry, John N. Constantino, Alan C. Evans, Heather C. HazlettStephen R. Dager, Sarah J. Paterson, Robert T. Schultz, Martin A. Styner, Guido Gerig, Bradley L. Schlaggar, Joseph Piven, John R. Pruett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Infant gross motor development is vital to adaptive function and predictive of both cognitive outcomes and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about neural systems underlying the emergence of walking and general gross motor abilities. Using resting state fcMRI, we identified functional brain networks associated with walking and gross motor scores in a mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort of infants at high and low risk for autism spectrum disorder, who represent a dimensionally distributed range of motor function. At age 12 months, functional connectivity of motor and default mode networks was correlated with walking, whereas dorsal attention and posterior cingulo-opercular networks were implicated at age 24 months. Analyses of general gross motor function also revealed involvement of motor and default mode networks at 12 and 24 months, with dorsal attention, cingulo-opercular, frontoparietal, and subcortical networks additionally implicated at 24 months. These findings suggest that changes in network-level brain-behavior relationships underlie the emergence and consolidation of walking and gross motor abilities in the toddler period. This initial description of network substrates of early gross motor development may inform hypotheses regarding neural systems contributing to typical and atypical motor outcomes, as well as neurodevelopmental disorders associated with motor dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)750-763
Number of pages14
JournalCerebral Cortex
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
National Institutes of Health (grant R01 MH093510 to J.R.P), a National Institutes of Health Autism Center of Excellence R01 grant (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) (#HD055741 to J.P.), Autism Speaks (#6020 to J.P.), the Simons Foundation (#140209 to J.P.), the McDonnell Center for Systems Neuroscience (J.R.P.) and a National Institute of Mental Health K01 MH103594 (A.T.E.). National Institute of Mental Health (K08 MH112891 to N.M.) and the Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center at Washington University (National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development P30 HD062171 to J.N.C.).

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.


  • functional connectivity
  • gross motor
  • infant
  • network
  • walking


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