Waiting tolerance: Ramp delay vs. freeway congestion

David Levinson, Kathleen Harder, John Bloomfield, Kathy Carlson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Waiting at ramp meters and traveling on freeways were tested using a computer administered stated preference (CASP) survey and a virtual experience stated preference (VESP) method employing a driving simulator. The selections varied in the number of minutes waiting at a ramp meter with vehicle speed once on the freeway. The subjects ranked the selections in order of preference. The results were statistically analyzed using a binary logit model controlling for demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, daily travel time, and personality scores. The results by the CASP method displayed a preference for freeway congestion to ramp delay, but opposite results were obtained by the VESP method. A number of reasons are posited to explain the difference, but the results indicate that method of stated preference data collection can significantly affect conclusions drawn.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalTransportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2006


  • Driving simulator
  • Personality
  • Ramp meters
  • Stated preference
  • Travel time


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