Projects per year
This study applied a partial least squares structural equation model (PLS-SEM) to examine how perceived waiting time may be interactively influenced by observed waiting time, station amenities, trip contexts, and respondent characteristics. The estimation results of the inner model indicated that, except for some direct measures (such as increasing the departure frequency), creating a good environment for waiting and helping passengers to smartly use public transport both have positive effects on reducing waiting time perceptions. From the outer model, we found that the perceived waiting time increases during peak commuting hours, in hot and rainy weather, at night, and when a transit vehicle is running behind schedule. Waiting at metro (rail) stations or bus stations with high-quality amenities seemed to shorten the perceived waiting time. Therefore, we recommend that transit operators in China should install shelters, benches, and arrival information boards in as many bus stations as possible.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The work was supported by the Projects of International Cooperation and Exchange of the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant number 51561135003 and the Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant number 51638004 and 51338003]. The authors would like to thank the anonymous referees for their helpful comments and valuable suggestions which have helped to improve the paper substantially.
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- Waiting time