Patients with schizophrenia show deficits in several neurocognitive domains. However, the relationship between white matter integrity and performance in these domains is poorly understood. The authors conducted neurocognitive testing and diffusion tensor imaging in 25 patients with schizophrenia. Performance was examined for tests of verbal declarative memory, attention, and executive function. Relationships between fractional anisotropy and cognitive performance were examined by using voxelwise correlational analyses. In each case, better performance on these tasks was associated with higher levels of fractional anisotropy in task-relevant regions.