In recent years, several techniques have been introduced that are capable of extracting 3D three-component velocity fields in fluid flows. Fast-paced developments in both hardware and processing algorithms have generated a diverse set of methods, with a growing range of applications in flow diagnostics. This has been further enriched by the increasingly marked trend of hybridization, in which the differences between techniques are fading. In this review, we carry out a survey of the prominent methods, including optical techniques and approaches based on medical imaging. An overview of each is given with an example of an application from the literature, while focusing on their respective strengths and challenges. A framework for the evaluation of velocimetry performance in terms of dynamic spatial range is discussed, along with technological trends and emerging strategies to exploit 3D data. While critical challenges still exist, these observations highlight how volumetric techniques are transforming experimental fluid mechanics, and that the possibilities they offer have just begun to be explored.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
SD was partially supported under Grant No. DPI2016- 79401-R funded by the Spanish State Research Agency (SRA) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). FC was partially supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems, Grant No. 1453538).
© 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.
- 3D flows measurement
- volumetric PIV
- volumetric velocimetry