In the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), diapause is governed by a multigenetic constitution that responds to daylength and temperature with seasonality. The ACB displays uni-or multivoltinism, depending on its geographic specificity. Hence, warmer temperatures may result in alternation of voltinism in the ACB, which will help in understanding the ecological consequences of climate warming on insects. In the present study, we investigated the voltinism in two natural populations from Harbin (H) and Gongzhuling (G) as well as a laboratory (L) population (established from the H population in 2017) of the ACB, at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 (aCO2 390 µL/L and eCO2 750 µL/L) and temperature (aT and Et = At + 2◦ C). From the diapause response, both the uni-and multivoltine ecotypes were coexisting in the H population. The neonate occurrence date of 50% individuals that induced diapause was ca. 10 days later in the G population than in the H population, but it was about 10 days earlier than in the L population. Comparing to the dates of onset and the peak of diapause induction, the G and L populations were less variable than the H population in response to a short and/or shortening daylength in the field. The univoltine individuals could not be eliminated completely after 19 generations of selection. Diapause incidence decreased with a climate-warming scenario, which was temporally specific and could be overridden by significantly low daily average temperatures. The eCO2 did not directly impact the voltinism. On the basis of voltinism, the H population was sympatric for uni-and multivoltine ecotypes, with multivoltinism being dominant. The univoltinism trait was recessive. Climate warming could significantly override the effect of photoperiod, which was yearly dependent. Warmer temperatures and a decreased latitude (shortened daylength), and their interaction, would drive ACB evolution toward diapause homogeneity for multivoltinism.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFD0201802).
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Climate change
- Ostrinia furnacalis