Voltage control of ferrimagnetic order and voltage-assisted writing of ferrimagnetic spin textures

Mantao Huang, Muhammad Usama Hasan, Konstantin Klyukin, Delin Zhang, Deyuan Lyu, Pierluigi Gargiani, Manuel Valvidares, Sara Sheffels, Alexandra Churikova, Felix Büttner, Jonas Zehner, Lucas Caretta, Ki Young Lee, Joonyeon Chang, Jian Ping Wang, Karin Leistner, Bilge Yildiz, Geoffrey S.D. Beach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Voltage control of magnetic order is desirable for spintronic device applications, but 180° magnetization switching is not straightforward because electric fields do not break time-reversal symmetry. Ferrimagnets are promising candidates for 180° switching owing to a multi-sublattice configuration with opposing magnetic moments of different magnitudes. In this study we used solid-state hydrogen gating to control the ferrimagnetic order in rare earth–transition metal thin films dynamically. Electric field-induced hydrogen loading/unloading in GdCo can shift the magnetic compensation temperature by more than 100 K, which enables control of the dominant magnetic sublattice. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements and ab initio calculations indicate that the magnetization control originates from the weakening of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling that reduces the magnetization of Gd more than that of Co upon hydrogenation. We observed reversible, gate voltage-induced net magnetization switching and full 180° Néel vector reversal in the absence of external magnetic fields. Furthermore, we generated ferrimagnetic spin textures, such as chiral domain walls and skyrmions, in racetrack devices through hydrogen gating. With gating times as short as 50 μs and endurance of more than 10,000 cycles, our method provides a powerful means to tune ferrimagnetic spin textures and dynamics, with broad applicability in the rapidly emerging field of ferrimagnetic spintronics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)981-988
Number of pages8
JournalNature Nanotechnology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
(7) of Science andTechnology (NST) grant(CAP-16-01-KIST) by the Korea government Technology (KIST) Institutional Program (2E31032) and a National Research Council (MSIP), and by the German Science Foundation (DFG) under project 400178764. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) computational resources provided through allocation TG-DMR190038. The work was performed using the facilities in the MIT Microsystems Technology Laboratory and in the Center for Materials Science and Engineering, supported by the NSF MRSEC program under award number DMR-1419807. Portions of this work were conducted in the Minnesota Nano Center, which is supported by the NSF through the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure (NNCI) under award number ECCS-2025124. M.V. and P.G. acknowledge additional funding through grants from MINECO FIS2016-78591-C3-2-R (AEI/FEDER, UE) and FLAG-ERA SographMEM (PCI2019-111908-2). M.H. acknowledges financial support from the Kavanaugh Fellows Program in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at MIT. L.C. acknowledges financial support from the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and the GEM Consortium. The authors thank L. Liu for use of ion-milling equipment.

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) through the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) under award number DMR-1419807 and through NSF award number ECCS-1808828, by SMART, one of seven centres of nCORE, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), by DARPA ERI FRANC program under HR001117S0056-FP-042, by the DARPA TEE program under HR001117S0038-D18AC0019, by the Korea Institute of Science and

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.


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