Voltage contrast linearization with a hemispherical retarding analyser

P. J. Fentem, A. Gopinath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A system for the linearization of voltage contrast in the scanning electron microscope for potentials between +or-10V is described. The linearization is achieved by using two concentric hemispherical grids which form a retarding field analyser with the specimen at the centre of the grids. Collection is by either a solid hemispherical cup, or alternatively the conventional scintillator cage. Results are presented for both cases. A discussion of the minimum detectable potential in terms of the beam current and equivalent noise current is also included.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number020
Pages (from-to)930-933
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments
Volume7
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 1974

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linearization
Linearization
Voltage
grids
retarding
Grid
Scintillator
Cage
Scanning Electron Microscope
Electric potential
electric potential
Concentric
beam currents
Phosphors
scintillation counters
Electron microscopes
electron microscopes
Scanning
scanning

Cite this

Voltage contrast linearization with a hemispherical retarding analyser. / Fentem, P. J.; Gopinath, A.

In: Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments, Vol. 7, No. 11, 020, 01.12.1974, p. 930-933.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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