Voltage contrast linearization with a hemispherical retarding analyser

P. J. Fentem, A. Gopinath

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A system for the linearization of voltage contrast in the scanning electron microscope for potentials between +or-10V is described. The linearization is achieved by using two concentric hemispherical grids which form a retarding field analyser with the specimen at the centre of the grids. Collection is by either a solid hemispherical cup, or alternatively the conventional scintillator cage. Results are presented for both cases. A discussion of the minimum detectable potential in terms of the beam current and equivalent noise current is also included.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number020
Pages (from-to)930-933
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments
Issue number11
StatePublished - Dec 1 1974


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