A. Gopinath, K. G. Gopinathan, P. R. Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Voltage contrast enables potentials and potential distributions to be observed in the SEM. Its origin is due to the low energy secondary electrons gaining or losing energy as the emission point potential is lowered below or raised above earth. This contrast is enhanced using pulsing and lock-in techniques and is used in the qualitative inspection of devices. Linearization by secondary energy analysis allows voltage measurements to be performed in the SEM. Various methods of linearization are in principle identical. Quantitative estimates of the minimum detectable voltage change with these techniques have also been obtained. The low bandwidth limitations of these measurement schemes may be overcome by using sampling techniques. The sampling SEM demonstrates that voltage waveforms to 100pS risetimes may be resolved with a voltage uncertainty of less than 100mV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)375-380, 352
Journal[No source information available]
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017
EventScanning Electron Microsc Meet at - Los Angeles, CA, USA
Duration: Apr 17 1978Apr 21 1978


Dive into the research topics of 'VOLTAGE CONTRAST: A REVIEW.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this