This work explores the volatility of particles produced from two diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) modes proposed for high-efficiency compression ignition engines. It also explores mechanisms of particulate formation and growth upon dilution in the near-tailpipe environment. The number distribution of exhaust particles from low- and mid-load dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and single-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PPCI) modes were experimentally studied over a gradient of dilution temperature. Particle volatility of select particle diameters was investigated using volatility tandem differential mobility analysis (V-TDMA). Evaporation rates for exhaust particles were compared with V-TDMA results for candidate pure n-alkanes to identify species with similar volatility characteristics. The results show that LTC particles are mostly comprised of material with volatility similar to engine oil alkanes. V-TDMA results were used as inputs to an aerosol condensation and evaporation model to support the finding that smaller particles in the distribution are comprised of lower volatility material than large particles under primary dilution conditions. Although our results show that saturation levels are high enough to drive condensation of alkanes onto existing particles under the dilution conditions investigated, they are not high enough to allow homogeneous nucleation of these same compounds in the primary exhaust plume. Therefore, we conclude that observed particles from LTC operation must grow from low concentrations of highly nonvolatile compounds present in the exhaust.
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Copyright © 2016 American Association for Aerosol Research.
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