Background and purpose: Low vitamin D levels, measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], are associated with increased stroke risk. Less is known about whether this association differs by race or D binding protein (DBP) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) status. Our objective was to characterize the associations of and interactions between 25(OH)D levels and DBP SNPs with incident stroke. It was hypothesized that associations of low 25(OH)D with stroke risk would be stronger amongst persons with genotypes associated with higher DBP levels. Methods: 25(OH)D was measured by mass spectroscopy in 12 158 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (baseline 1990-1992, mean age 57 years, 57% female, 23% black) and they were followed through 2011 for adjudicated stroke events. Two DBP SNPs (rs7041, rs4588) were genotyped. Cox models were adjusted for demographic/behavioral/socioeconomic factors. Results: During a median of 20 years follow-up, 804 incident strokes occurred. The lowest quintile of 25(OH)D (<17.2 ng/ml) was associated with higher stroke risk [hazard ratio (HR) 1.34 (1.06-1.71) versus highest quintile]; this association was similar by race (P interaction 0.60). There was weak evidence of increased risk of stroke amongst those with 25(OH)D < 17.2 ng/ml and either rs7041 TG/GG [HR = 1.29 (1.00-1.67)] versus TT genotype [HR = 1.19 (0.94-1.52)] (P interaction 0.28) or rs4588 CA/AA [HR = 1.37 (1.07-1.74)] versus CC genotype [HR = 1.14 (0.91-1.41)] (P interaction 0.11). Conclusions: Low 25(OH)D is a risk factor for stroke. Persons with low 25(OH)D who are genetically predisposed to high DBP (rs7041 G, rs4588 A alleles), who therefore have lower predicted bioavailable 25(OH)D, may be at greater risk for stroke, although our results were not conclusive and should be interpreted as hypothesis generating.
- Vitamin D