All mammals with hypopigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium have abnormal visual systems. Albino mammals have been found to have: (1) reduced numbers of uncrossed optic fibers projecting to all visual centers, (2) disorganization of the pattern (lamination) of the dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei, and (3) disorganization of projections from the dorsal lateral genic ulate nuclei to the visual cortex. The disorganization of central visual centers has catastrophic effects on stereovision and optokinetic nystagmus. Variable expression in oculocutaneous albinism suggests that affected individuals cannot always be identified by hypopigmentation, reduced visual acuity and nystagmus. Careful observation of foveal development in individuals even with normal vision is necessary to detect all persons with albinism. The scalp-recorded visually evoked potential designed to detect optic misrouting is the most reliable concomitant for determining albinism.
- Evoked potentials