Viruses in groundwater beneath sewage irrigated cropland

Sagar M. Goyal, Bruce H. Keswick, Charles P. Gerba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


The occurrence of enteric viruses in groundwater and soil was examined beneath three different sites where slow rate sewage irrigation of cropland is practiced. At all sites, the sewage was secondarily treated (aeration) before land application. Enteric viruses were isolated from wells beneath all sites. The lowest frequency of isolation was from wells beneath the one site practicing chlorination before application by spray irrigation. Viruses were detected in wells as deep as 27.5 m.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)299-302
Number of pages4
JournalWater Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1984


  • coliforms
  • coxsackievirus
  • groundwater
  • irrigation
  • land application
  • sewage
  • viruses
  • water reuse


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