Viral Myocarditis—Incidence, Diagnosis and Management

Megan Olejniczak, Matthew Schwartz, Elizabeth Webber, Andrew Shaffer, Tjorvi E. Perry

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


Viral myocarditis has an incidence rate of 10 to 22 per 100,000 individuals. The presentation pattern of viral myocarditis can range from nonspecific symptoms of fatigue and shortness of breath to more aggressive symptoms that mimic acute coronary syndrome. After the initial acute phase presentation of viral myocarditis, the virus may be cleared, resulting in full clinical recovery; the viral infection may persist; or the viral infection may lead to a persistent autoimmune-mediated inflammatory process with continuing symptoms of heart failure. As a result of these 3 possibilities, the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of viral myocarditis can be extremely unpredictable and challenging for the clinician. Herein, the incidence, etiology, definition and classification, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment of viral myocarditis are reviewed, and how acute clinical care teams might differentiate between viral myocarditis and other acute cardiac conditions is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1591-1601
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
No relevant conflicts for all authors.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Inc.


  • fulminant viral myocarditis
  • mechanical circulatory support
  • parvovirus B19
  • viral myocarditis

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


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