Viral Injection and cranial window implantation for in vivo two-photon imaging

Gordon B. Smith, David Fitzpatrick

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

11 Scopus citations


Two-photon (2P) imaging has proven to be a powerful tool for investigating neural structure and function both in brain slices and in intact systems. In vivo 2P imaging presents significant challenges in sample preparation, which are exacerbated in non-murine species. Here, we describe procedures for the effective virally mediated labeling of neurons and for the implantation of cranial windows for imaging. The procedures described here are applicable to a range of species, including mice, and are routinely used in ferrets and tree shrews to provide large-scale labeling of cortical volumes and high-quality imaging data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages15
StatePublished - 2016

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016.


  • Genetically encoded calcium sensor
  • Imaging
  • In vivo
  • Microscopy
  • Two-photon
  • Viral expression


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