Violence against educators: A population-based study

Susan G Gerberich, Nancy M. Nachreiner, Andrew Ryan, Timothy R Church, Patricia M McGovern, Mindy S. Geisser, Steven J Mongin, Gavin D. Watt, Denise M. Feda, Starr K. Sage, Evette D. Pinder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


Objective: Identify the magnitude and risk factors for occupational physical assault (PA) and nonphysical violence (NPV) against Minnesota educators. Methods: Among 26,000 randomly selected licensed kindergarten to grade 12 educators, 6469 eligible educators reported whether they experienced PA or NPV during the prior year. Multiple logistic regression models were based on directed acyclic graphs. Results: Respective PA and NPV annual rates per 100 educators were 8.3 and 38.4. Work changes resulted among PA (13% to 20%) and NPV (22%) victims. Risks increased for master's prepared or education specialists who worked in public alternative schools and special education. Risks decreased for those working for more than 20 years, part time, and in private schools. Physical assault risk decreased when teaching grades 3 to 12 (vs kindergarten to grade 2), but NPV risk increased. Conclusion: Targeted efforts on specific violence risk and protective factors are essential to improve educators' work environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)294-302
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of occupational and environmental medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2011

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Support for this study was provided, in part, by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services (R01 OH007816); Center for Violence Prevention and Control, University of Minnesota; and Regional Injury Prevention Research Center, University of Minnesota. The contents of this effort are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or other associated entities. The authors also thank their Educational Advisory Consulting team members for their support, who were integral to this study: Willarene Beasley, Charles Goodwin, Donald Hilts, Laura R. Langhoff, and Joseph P. Miller.


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