Very-high-energy γ -ray observations of the Blazar 1ES 2344+514 with VERITAS

C. Allen, S. Archambault, A. Archer, W. Benbow, R. Bird, E. Bourbeau, R. Brose, M. Buchovecky, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, J. V. Cardenzana, M. Cerruti, X. Chen, J. L. Christiansen, M. P. Connolly, W. Cui, M. K. Daniel, J. D. Eisch, A. Falcone, Q. FengM. Fernandez-Alonso, J. P. Finley, H. Fleischhack, A. Flinders, Lucy F Fortson, A. Furniss, G. H. Gillanders, S. Griffin, J. Grube, M. Hütten, N. Håkansson, D. Hanna, O. Hervet, J. Holder, G. Hughes, T. B. Humensky, C. A. Johnson, P. Kaaret, P. Kar, N. Kelley-Hoskins, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, M. Krause, F. Krennrich, S. Kumar, M. J. Lang, G. Maier, S. McArthur, A. McCann, K. Meagher, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, T. Nguyen, D. Nieto, S. O'Brien, A. O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, R. A. Ong, A. N. Otte, N. Park, A. Petrashyk, A. Pichel, M. Pohl, A. Popkow, E. Pueschel, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, P. T. Reynolds, G. T. Richards, E. Roache, A. C. Rovero, Cameron B Rulten, I. Sadeh, M. Santander, G. H. Sembroski, Karlen Shahinyan, I. Telezhinsky, J. V. Tucci, J. Tyler, S. P. Wakely, A. Weinstein, A. Wilhelm, D. A. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present very-high-energy γ -ray observations of the BL Lac object 1ES 2344+514 taken by the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System between 2007 and 2015. 1ES 2344+514 is detected with a statistical significance above the background of 20.8σ in 47.2 h (livetime) of observations, making this the most comprehensive very-high-energy study of 1ES 2344+514 to date. Using these observations, the temporal properties of 1ES 2344+514 are studied on short and long times-scales. We fit a constant-flux model to nightly and seasonally binned light curves and apply a fractional variability test to determine the stability of the source on different time-scales. We reject the constant-flux model for the 2007-2008 and 2014-2015 nightly binned light curves and for the long-term seasonally binned light curve at the > 3σ level. The spectra of the time-averaged emission before and after correction for attenuation by the extragalactic background light are obtained. The observed time-averaged spectrum above 200 GeV is satisfactorily fitted (χ2/NDF = 7.89/6) by a power-law function with an index Γ = 2.46 ± 0.06stat ± 0.20sys and extends to at least 8 TeV. The extragalactic-backgroundlight- deabsorbed spectrum is adequately fit (χ2/NDF = 6.73/6) by a power-law function with an index Γ = 2.15 ± 0.06stat ± 0.20sys while an F-test indicates that the power law with an exponential cut-offfunction provides a marginally better fit (χ2/NDF = 2.56/5) at the 2.1σ level. The source location is found to be consistent with the published radio location and its spatial extent is consistent with a point source.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2117-2123
Number of pages7
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume471
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

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rays
light curve
power law
energy
timescale
point sources
point source
energetics
attenuation
telescopes
radio
radiation
index
test

Keywords

  • Astroparticle physics
  • BL Lacertae objects: individual: 1ES 2344+514 = VER J2347+517
  • Gamma-rays: galaxies

Cite this

Allen, C., Archambault, S., Archer, A., Benbow, W., Bird, R., Bourbeau, E., ... Williams, D. A. (2017). Very-high-energy γ -ray observations of the Blazar 1ES 2344+514 with VERITAS. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 471(2), 2117-2123. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx1756

Very-high-energy γ -ray observations of the Blazar 1ES 2344+514 with VERITAS. / Allen, C.; Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Bourbeau, E.; Brose, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Christiansen, J. L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M. K.; Eisch, J. D.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Fernandez-Alonso, M.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Flinders, A.; Fortson, Lucy F; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Hütten, M.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Hervet, O.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nguyen, T.; Nieto, D.; O'Brien, S.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Petrashyk, A.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rulten, Cameron B; Sadeh, I.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, Karlen; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 471, No. 2, 01.01.2017, p. 2117-2123.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Allen, C, Archambault, S, Archer, A, Benbow, W, Bird, R, Bourbeau, E, Brose, R, Buchovecky, M, Buckley, JH, Bugaev, V, Cardenzana, JV, Cerruti, M, Chen, X, Christiansen, JL, Connolly, MP, Cui, W, Daniel, MK, Eisch, JD, Falcone, A, Feng, Q, Fernandez-Alonso, M, Finley, JP, Fleischhack, H, Flinders, A, Fortson, LF, Furniss, A, Gillanders, GH, Griffin, S, Grube, J, Hütten, M, Håkansson, N, Hanna, D, Hervet, O, Holder, J, Hughes, G, Humensky, TB, Johnson, CA, Kaaret, P, Kar, P, Kelley-Hoskins, N, Kertzman, M, Kieda, D, Krause, M, Krennrich, F, Kumar, S, Lang, MJ, Maier, G, McArthur, S, McCann, A, Meagher, K, Moriarty, P, Mukherjee, R, Nguyen, T, Nieto, D, O'Brien, S, O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A, Ong, RA, Otte, AN, Park, N, Petrashyk, A, Pichel, A, Pohl, M, Popkow, A, Pueschel, E, Quinn, J, Ragan, K, Reynolds, PT, Richards, GT, Roache, E, Rovero, AC, Rulten, CB, Sadeh, I, Santander, M, Sembroski, GH, Shahinyan, K, Telezhinsky, I, Tucci, JV, Tyler, J, Wakely, SP, Weinstein, A, Wilhelm, A & Williams, DA 2017, 'Very-high-energy γ -ray observations of the Blazar 1ES 2344+514 with VERITAS', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 471, no. 2, pp. 2117-2123. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx1756
Allen, C. ; Archambault, S. ; Archer, A. ; Benbow, W. ; Bird, R. ; Bourbeau, E. ; Brose, R. ; Buchovecky, M. ; Buckley, J. H. ; Bugaev, V. ; Cardenzana, J. V. ; Cerruti, M. ; Chen, X. ; Christiansen, J. L. ; Connolly, M. P. ; Cui, W. ; Daniel, M. K. ; Eisch, J. D. ; Falcone, A. ; Feng, Q. ; Fernandez-Alonso, M. ; Finley, J. P. ; Fleischhack, H. ; Flinders, A. ; Fortson, Lucy F ; Furniss, A. ; Gillanders, G. H. ; Griffin, S. ; Grube, J. ; Hütten, M. ; Håkansson, N. ; Hanna, D. ; Hervet, O. ; Holder, J. ; Hughes, G. ; Humensky, T. B. ; Johnson, C. A. ; Kaaret, P. ; Kar, P. ; Kelley-Hoskins, N. ; Kertzman, M. ; Kieda, D. ; Krause, M. ; Krennrich, F. ; Kumar, S. ; Lang, M. J. ; Maier, G. ; McArthur, S. ; McCann, A. ; Meagher, K. ; Moriarty, P. ; Mukherjee, R. ; Nguyen, T. ; Nieto, D. ; O'Brien, S. ; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A. ; Ong, R. A. ; Otte, A. N. ; Park, N. ; Petrashyk, A. ; Pichel, A. ; Pohl, M. ; Popkow, A. ; Pueschel, E. ; Quinn, J. ; Ragan, K. ; Reynolds, P. T. ; Richards, G. T. ; Roache, E. ; Rovero, A. C. ; Rulten, Cameron B ; Sadeh, I. ; Santander, M. ; Sembroski, G. H. ; Shahinyan, Karlen ; Telezhinsky, I. ; Tucci, J. V. ; Tyler, J. ; Wakely, S. P. ; Weinstein, A. ; Wilhelm, A. ; Williams, D. A. / Very-high-energy γ -ray observations of the Blazar 1ES 2344+514 with VERITAS. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2017 ; Vol. 471, No. 2. pp. 2117-2123.
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title = "Very-high-energy γ -ray observations of the Blazar 1ES 2344+514 with VERITAS",
abstract = "We present very-high-energy γ -ray observations of the BL Lac object 1ES 2344+514 taken by the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System between 2007 and 2015. 1ES 2344+514 is detected with a statistical significance above the background of 20.8σ in 47.2 h (livetime) of observations, making this the most comprehensive very-high-energy study of 1ES 2344+514 to date. Using these observations, the temporal properties of 1ES 2344+514 are studied on short and long times-scales. We fit a constant-flux model to nightly and seasonally binned light curves and apply a fractional variability test to determine the stability of the source on different time-scales. We reject the constant-flux model for the 2007-2008 and 2014-2015 nightly binned light curves and for the long-term seasonally binned light curve at the > 3σ level. The spectra of the time-averaged emission before and after correction for attenuation by the extragalactic background light are obtained. The observed time-averaged spectrum above 200 GeV is satisfactorily fitted (χ2/NDF = 7.89/6) by a power-law function with an index Γ = 2.46 ± 0.06stat ± 0.20sys and extends to at least 8 TeV. The extragalactic-backgroundlight- deabsorbed spectrum is adequately fit (χ2/NDF = 6.73/6) by a power-law function with an index Γ = 2.15 ± 0.06stat ± 0.20sys while an F-test indicates that the power law with an exponential cut-offfunction provides a marginally better fit (χ2/NDF = 2.56/5) at the 2.1σ level. The source location is found to be consistent with the published radio location and its spatial extent is consistent with a point source.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Very-high-energy γ -ray observations of the Blazar 1ES 2344+514 with VERITAS

AU - Allen, C.

AU - Archambault, S.

AU - Archer, A.

AU - Benbow, W.

AU - Bird, R.

AU - Bourbeau, E.

AU - Brose, R.

AU - Buchovecky, M.

AU - Buckley, J. H.

AU - Bugaev, V.

AU - Cardenzana, J. V.

AU - Cerruti, M.

AU - Chen, X.

AU - Christiansen, J. L.

AU - Connolly, M. P.

AU - Cui, W.

AU - Daniel, M. K.

AU - Eisch, J. D.

AU - Falcone, A.

AU - Feng, Q.

AU - Fernandez-Alonso, M.

AU - Finley, J. P.

AU - Fleischhack, H.

AU - Flinders, A.

AU - Fortson, Lucy F

AU - Furniss, A.

AU - Gillanders, G. H.

AU - Griffin, S.

AU - Grube, J.

AU - Hütten, M.

AU - Håkansson, N.

AU - Hanna, D.

AU - Hervet, O.

AU - Holder, J.

AU - Hughes, G.

AU - Humensky, T. B.

AU - Johnson, C. A.

AU - Kaaret, P.

AU - Kar, P.

AU - Kelley-Hoskins, N.

AU - Kertzman, M.

AU - Kieda, D.

AU - Krause, M.

AU - Krennrich, F.

AU - Kumar, S.

AU - Lang, M. J.

AU - Maier, G.

AU - McArthur, S.

AU - McCann, A.

AU - Meagher, K.

AU - Moriarty, P.

AU - Mukherjee, R.

AU - Nguyen, T.

AU - Nieto, D.

AU - O'Brien, S.

AU - O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.

AU - Ong, R. A.

AU - Otte, A. N.

AU - Park, N.

AU - Petrashyk, A.

AU - Pichel, A.

AU - Pohl, M.

AU - Popkow, A.

AU - Pueschel, E.

AU - Quinn, J.

AU - Ragan, K.

AU - Reynolds, P. T.

AU - Richards, G. T.

AU - Roache, E.

AU - Rovero, A. C.

AU - Rulten, Cameron B

AU - Sadeh, I.

AU - Santander, M.

AU - Sembroski, G. H.

AU - Shahinyan, Karlen

AU - Telezhinsky, I.

AU - Tucci, J. V.

AU - Tyler, J.

AU - Wakely, S. P.

AU - Weinstein, A.

AU - Wilhelm, A.

AU - Williams, D. A.

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - We present very-high-energy γ -ray observations of the BL Lac object 1ES 2344+514 taken by the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System between 2007 and 2015. 1ES 2344+514 is detected with a statistical significance above the background of 20.8σ in 47.2 h (livetime) of observations, making this the most comprehensive very-high-energy study of 1ES 2344+514 to date. Using these observations, the temporal properties of 1ES 2344+514 are studied on short and long times-scales. We fit a constant-flux model to nightly and seasonally binned light curves and apply a fractional variability test to determine the stability of the source on different time-scales. We reject the constant-flux model for the 2007-2008 and 2014-2015 nightly binned light curves and for the long-term seasonally binned light curve at the > 3σ level. The spectra of the time-averaged emission before and after correction for attenuation by the extragalactic background light are obtained. The observed time-averaged spectrum above 200 GeV is satisfactorily fitted (χ2/NDF = 7.89/6) by a power-law function with an index Γ = 2.46 ± 0.06stat ± 0.20sys and extends to at least 8 TeV. The extragalactic-backgroundlight- deabsorbed spectrum is adequately fit (χ2/NDF = 6.73/6) by a power-law function with an index Γ = 2.15 ± 0.06stat ± 0.20sys while an F-test indicates that the power law with an exponential cut-offfunction provides a marginally better fit (χ2/NDF = 2.56/5) at the 2.1σ level. The source location is found to be consistent with the published radio location and its spatial extent is consistent with a point source.

AB - We present very-high-energy γ -ray observations of the BL Lac object 1ES 2344+514 taken by the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System between 2007 and 2015. 1ES 2344+514 is detected with a statistical significance above the background of 20.8σ in 47.2 h (livetime) of observations, making this the most comprehensive very-high-energy study of 1ES 2344+514 to date. Using these observations, the temporal properties of 1ES 2344+514 are studied on short and long times-scales. We fit a constant-flux model to nightly and seasonally binned light curves and apply a fractional variability test to determine the stability of the source on different time-scales. We reject the constant-flux model for the 2007-2008 and 2014-2015 nightly binned light curves and for the long-term seasonally binned light curve at the > 3σ level. The spectra of the time-averaged emission before and after correction for attenuation by the extragalactic background light are obtained. The observed time-averaged spectrum above 200 GeV is satisfactorily fitted (χ2/NDF = 7.89/6) by a power-law function with an index Γ = 2.46 ± 0.06stat ± 0.20sys and extends to at least 8 TeV. The extragalactic-backgroundlight- deabsorbed spectrum is adequately fit (χ2/NDF = 6.73/6) by a power-law function with an index Γ = 2.15 ± 0.06stat ± 0.20sys while an F-test indicates that the power law with an exponential cut-offfunction provides a marginally better fit (χ2/NDF = 2.56/5) at the 2.1σ level. The source location is found to be consistent with the published radio location and its spatial extent is consistent with a point source.

KW - Astroparticle physics

KW - BL Lacertae objects: individual: 1ES 2344+514 = VER J2347+517

KW - Gamma-rays: galaxies

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85052528946&partnerID=8YFLogxK

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U2 - 10.1093/mnras/stx1756

DO - 10.1093/mnras/stx1756

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EP - 2123

JO - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN - 0035-8711

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