Vertical heterogeneities of cyanobacteria and microcystin concentrations in lakes using a seasonal In situ monitoring station

A. A. Wilkinson, M. Hondzo, M. Guala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A high frequency, high resolution, seasonal research station was deployed to quantify a wide range of local meteorological conditions, water temperature, and water chemistry, including phycocyanin, in two different eutrophic stratified Minnesota lakes. The monitoring effort was coupled with discrete weekly sampling measuring nutrients, cyanobacteria composition, and microcystin concentrations. Our objective was to describe the vertical and seasonal distributions of cyanobacteria biovolume (BV) and microcystin concentrations (MC) using physical lake variables. Two types of BV distributions were observed above the thermocline upward in the water column. The first distribution depicted BV uniformly distributed over the diurnal surface layer (hSL), and the second BV distribution displayed local BV maxima. A quantitative relationship was developed to determine the anticipation of observing a uniform distribution as a function of the surface layer Reynolds number (ReSL), the dimensionless ratio of inertial to viscous forces. The uniform distribution was observed systematically for ReSL > 50,000. MC was observed to accumulate above the thermocline and have a vertical distribution similar to BV, thus depending on ReSL. This is important for directing sampling efforts, because it narrows the range of BV and MC heterogeneity above the thermocline, and suggests a vertical sampling protocol to detect potential maxima and compute representative depth-average concentrations. We explored the temporal variability of the MC to BV ratio, spatially averaged in the epilimnion (MCep/BVep). The maximum MCep/BVep occurred before the maximum BVep and specifically, during the onset of significant biomass growth in both lakes. This observation is notable because the maximum MCep occurs before the visual signs of enhanced cyanobacterial accrual are less recognizable to the public and to monitoring efforts. Our findings could have important implications for predicting MC distribution and guiding monitoring strategies for quantifying MC concentrations in small stratified lakes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere00838
JournalGlobal Ecology and Conservation
Volume21
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2020

Fingerprint

microcystins
Cyanobacteria
cyanobacterium
lakes
monitoring
lake
thermocline
surface layer
sampling
epilimnion
hydrochemistry
distribution
in situ
monitoring station
Reynolds number
water chemistry
vertical distribution
water temperature
water column
nutrient

Keywords

  • Cyanobacteria
  • Eutrophication
  • Lakes
  • Microcystin
  • Physical environment
  • Phytoplankton

Cite this

@article{9d04b5f70b674daebaee9333b4a6ae19,
title = "Vertical heterogeneities of cyanobacteria and microcystin concentrations in lakes using a seasonal In situ monitoring station",
abstract = "A high frequency, high resolution, seasonal research station was deployed to quantify a wide range of local meteorological conditions, water temperature, and water chemistry, including phycocyanin, in two different eutrophic stratified Minnesota lakes. The monitoring effort was coupled with discrete weekly sampling measuring nutrients, cyanobacteria composition, and microcystin concentrations. Our objective was to describe the vertical and seasonal distributions of cyanobacteria biovolume (BV) and microcystin concentrations (MC) using physical lake variables. Two types of BV distributions were observed above the thermocline upward in the water column. The first distribution depicted BV uniformly distributed over the diurnal surface layer (hSL), and the second BV distribution displayed local BV maxima. A quantitative relationship was developed to determine the anticipation of observing a uniform distribution as a function of the surface layer Reynolds number (ReSL), the dimensionless ratio of inertial to viscous forces. The uniform distribution was observed systematically for ReSL > 50,000. MC was observed to accumulate above the thermocline and have a vertical distribution similar to BV, thus depending on ReSL. This is important for directing sampling efforts, because it narrows the range of BV and MC heterogeneity above the thermocline, and suggests a vertical sampling protocol to detect potential maxima and compute representative depth-average concentrations. We explored the temporal variability of the MC to BV ratio, spatially averaged in the epilimnion (MCep/BVep). The maximum MCep/BVep occurred before the maximum BVep and specifically, during the onset of significant biomass growth in both lakes. This observation is notable because the maximum MCep occurs before the visual signs of enhanced cyanobacterial accrual are less recognizable to the public and to monitoring efforts. Our findings could have important implications for predicting MC distribution and guiding monitoring strategies for quantifying MC concentrations in small stratified lakes.",
keywords = "Cyanobacteria, Eutrophication, Lakes, Microcystin, Physical environment, Phytoplankton",
author = "Wilkinson, {A. A.} and M. Hondzo and M. Guala",
year = "2020",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00838",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "21",
journal = "Global Ecology and Conservation",
issn = "2351-9894",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Vertical heterogeneities of cyanobacteria and microcystin concentrations in lakes using a seasonal In situ monitoring station

AU - Wilkinson, A. A.

AU - Hondzo, M.

AU - Guala, M.

PY - 2020/3

Y1 - 2020/3

N2 - A high frequency, high resolution, seasonal research station was deployed to quantify a wide range of local meteorological conditions, water temperature, and water chemistry, including phycocyanin, in two different eutrophic stratified Minnesota lakes. The monitoring effort was coupled with discrete weekly sampling measuring nutrients, cyanobacteria composition, and microcystin concentrations. Our objective was to describe the vertical and seasonal distributions of cyanobacteria biovolume (BV) and microcystin concentrations (MC) using physical lake variables. Two types of BV distributions were observed above the thermocline upward in the water column. The first distribution depicted BV uniformly distributed over the diurnal surface layer (hSL), and the second BV distribution displayed local BV maxima. A quantitative relationship was developed to determine the anticipation of observing a uniform distribution as a function of the surface layer Reynolds number (ReSL), the dimensionless ratio of inertial to viscous forces. The uniform distribution was observed systematically for ReSL > 50,000. MC was observed to accumulate above the thermocline and have a vertical distribution similar to BV, thus depending on ReSL. This is important for directing sampling efforts, because it narrows the range of BV and MC heterogeneity above the thermocline, and suggests a vertical sampling protocol to detect potential maxima and compute representative depth-average concentrations. We explored the temporal variability of the MC to BV ratio, spatially averaged in the epilimnion (MCep/BVep). The maximum MCep/BVep occurred before the maximum BVep and specifically, during the onset of significant biomass growth in both lakes. This observation is notable because the maximum MCep occurs before the visual signs of enhanced cyanobacterial accrual are less recognizable to the public and to monitoring efforts. Our findings could have important implications for predicting MC distribution and guiding monitoring strategies for quantifying MC concentrations in small stratified lakes.

AB - A high frequency, high resolution, seasonal research station was deployed to quantify a wide range of local meteorological conditions, water temperature, and water chemistry, including phycocyanin, in two different eutrophic stratified Minnesota lakes. The monitoring effort was coupled with discrete weekly sampling measuring nutrients, cyanobacteria composition, and microcystin concentrations. Our objective was to describe the vertical and seasonal distributions of cyanobacteria biovolume (BV) and microcystin concentrations (MC) using physical lake variables. Two types of BV distributions were observed above the thermocline upward in the water column. The first distribution depicted BV uniformly distributed over the diurnal surface layer (hSL), and the second BV distribution displayed local BV maxima. A quantitative relationship was developed to determine the anticipation of observing a uniform distribution as a function of the surface layer Reynolds number (ReSL), the dimensionless ratio of inertial to viscous forces. The uniform distribution was observed systematically for ReSL > 50,000. MC was observed to accumulate above the thermocline and have a vertical distribution similar to BV, thus depending on ReSL. This is important for directing sampling efforts, because it narrows the range of BV and MC heterogeneity above the thermocline, and suggests a vertical sampling protocol to detect potential maxima and compute representative depth-average concentrations. We explored the temporal variability of the MC to BV ratio, spatially averaged in the epilimnion (MCep/BVep). The maximum MCep/BVep occurred before the maximum BVep and specifically, during the onset of significant biomass growth in both lakes. This observation is notable because the maximum MCep occurs before the visual signs of enhanced cyanobacterial accrual are less recognizable to the public and to monitoring efforts. Our findings could have important implications for predicting MC distribution and guiding monitoring strategies for quantifying MC concentrations in small stratified lakes.

KW - Cyanobacteria

KW - Eutrophication

KW - Lakes

KW - Microcystin

KW - Physical environment

KW - Phytoplankton

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85074494291&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85074494291&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00838

DO - 10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00838

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85074494291

VL - 21

JO - Global Ecology and Conservation

JF - Global Ecology and Conservation

SN - 2351-9894

M1 - e00838

ER -