Velocity-based modeling of physical interactions in dense crowds

Sujeong Kim, Stephen J. Guy, Karl Hillesland, Basim Zafar, Adnan Abdul Aziz Gutub, Dinesh Manocha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


We present an interactive algorithm to model physics-based interactions in dense crowds. Our approach is capable of modeling both physical forces and interactions between agents and obstacles, while also allowing the agents to anticipate and avoid upcoming collisions during local navigation. We combine velocity-based collision-avoidance algorithms with external physical forces. The overall formulation produces various effects of forces acting on agents and crowds, including balance recovery motion and force propagation through the crowd. We further extend our method to model more complex behaviors involving social and cultural rules. We use finite-state machines to specify a series of behaviors and demonstrate our approach on many complex scenarios. Our algorithm can simulate a few thousand agents at interactive rates and can generate many emergent behaviors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)541-555
Number of pages15
JournalVisual Computer
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


  • Multi-agent simulation
  • Physical interactions


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