Vascular Composite Allografts (VCA): New Transplants, New Infections

Julie M. Steinbrink, Timothy L. Pruett, Linda C. Cendales

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Vascularized composite allografts, or VCA transplants, are allotransplants that incorporate multiple tissues transplanted as a single functional unit, most commonly hands or face. They are, by definition, transplants aimed at improving quality of life rather than life sparing. Yet they may also be life-giving in the case of temporary uterine transplants, where the goal is to carry a healthy pregnancy through to term and delivery. Because of the multiple tissue layers involved and the systemic immunosuppression required to prevent rejection, VCA transplants carry unique infection risks, distinct for each tissue in VCA. By understanding the different infectious risks carried by different tissues, this chapter builds a framework to understand and evaluate infection of any vascularized composite allograft.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEmerging Transplant Infections
Subtitle of host publicationClinical Challenges and Implications
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9783030258696
ISBN (Print)9783030258689
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021.


  • Composite allograft
  • Face transplant
  • Hand transplant
  • Uterine transplant
  • VCA


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