The extent to which responses to toxicants can be modified by the environment and genotype of Daphnia magna is important for interpreting the results from ecotoxicity tests. Variation in the development of cadmium resistance and its relevance for survivorship has been investigated in two genetically distinct clones of D. magna. Cadmium resistance was induced by pre-exposing daphnids to a sublethal concentration of a Cd/Zn mixture and thereafter cadmium tolerance was assessed in standard acute tests. The results showed that the ability to develop cadmium resistance is affected by temperature, but there is no consistent pattern for maternal nutrition. The age of the daphnids had no apparent effect on the development of cadmium resistance. Differences in the induction of cadmium resistance between clones were seen only under resource depression.