Variation in spectral response of soybeans with respect to illumination, view and canopy geometry

K. Jon Ranson, Larry L. Biehl, Marvin E. Bauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations


Comparisons of the spectral response for incomplete (well-defined row structure) and complete (overlapping row structure) canopies indicated that there was a greater dependence on Sun and view geometry for the incomplete canopies. This effect was more pronounced for the highly absorptive red (0.6-0.7 μm) wavelength band than for the near-infrared (IR) (0.8-1.1 μm) based on relative reflectance factor changes. Red and near-IR reflectance for the incomplete canopy decreased as solar zenith angle increased for a nadir view angle until the soil between the plant rows was completely shaded. Thereafter for increasing solar zenith angle the red reflectance levelled off and the near-IR reflectance increased. A ‘hot-spot’ effect was evident for the red and near-IR reflectance factors, especially when the Sun-sensor view directions were perpendicular to the rows. The ‘hot-spot’ effect was more pronounced for the red band based on relative reflectance value changes. The effect of Sun angle was more pronounced for view angles perpendicular to the row direction. An analysis of the ratios of off-nadir-to nadir-acquired data revealed that off-nadir red band reflectance factors more closely approximated straight-down measurements for time periods away from solar noon. Near-IR and greenness responses showed a similar behaviour. Normalized difference generally approximated straight-down measurements during the middle portion of the day. An exception occurred near solar noon when sunlit bare soil was present in the scene.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1827-1842
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Remote Sensing
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1985


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