Consumption of corn-based foods is increasing in the United States and globally. Little is known about changes in kernel compositional profiles, including levels of acrylamide precursors (e.g. asparagine and reducing sugars), when corn kernels are cooked in a process called nixtamalization. The objectives of this study were to investigate the compositional variation of raw starting materials, general compositional changes during nixtamalization, and genotype specific patterns of change for acrylamide precursors during this process. A panel of 120 genotypes were subject to a small-scale bench top cooking protocol to investigate compositional changes that occur during cooking and steeping. Substantial variation was observed in the raw starting material for all compositional traits that were measured including asparagine, fructose, glucose, crude protein, and starch. During nixtamalization a decrease in asparagine, glucose, and fructose mean and variation was observed, while crude protein and starch remained relatively stable. Analysis of the genotype-by-subsample interactions (after cooking and after steeping) revealed variation in compositional changes in response to cooking among the genotypes. These findings reveal the dynamics of compositional traits during nixtamalization of corn kernels. This information can be used by plant breeders and food processors to more effectively make acrylamide mitigation strategies.
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The authors would like to thank and acknowledge Akua Okyere and Ibilola Kougblenou for technical assistance, Jaye McEvoy, Dane Bjerklie, Jacqueline Tobar, and Mar Horns for processing samples. This work was supported in part by PepsiCo, Inc. To CNH.
The authors would like to thank and acknowledge Akua Okyere and Ibilola Kougblenou for technical assistance, Jaye McEvoy, Dane Bjerklie, Jacqueline Tobar, and Mar Horns for processing samples. This work was supported in part by PepsiCo , Inc. To CNH.
© 2022 The Authors
- Maillard reaction