Value of clinician assessment of hemodynamics in advanced heart failure: the ESCAPE trial.

Mark H. Drazner, Anne S. Hellkamp, Carl V. Leier, Monica R. Shah, Leslie W. Miller, Stuart D. Russell, James B. Young, Robert M. Califf, Anju Nohria

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

199 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: We determined whether estimated hemodynamics from history and physical examination (H&P) reflect invasive measurements and predict outcomes in advanced heart failure (HF). The role of the H&P in medical decision making has declined in favor of diagnostic tests, perhaps due to lack of evidence for utility. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared H&P estimates of filling pressures and cardiac index with invasive measurements in 194 patients in the ESCAPE trial. H&P estimates were compared with 6-month outcomes in 388 patients enrolled in ESCAPE. Measured right atrial pressure (RAP) was <8 mm Hg in 82% of patients with RAP estimated from jugular veins as <8 mm Hg, and was >12 mm Hg in 70% of patients when estimated as >12 mm Hg. From the H&P, only estimated RAP > or =12 mm Hg (odds ratio [OR] 4.6; P<0.001) and orthopnea > or =2 pillows (OR 3.6; P<0.05) were associated with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) > or =30 mm Hg. Estimated cardiac index did not reliably reflect measured cardiac index (P=0.09), but "cold" versus "warm" profile was associated with lower median measured cardiac index (1.75 vs. 2.0 L/min/m(2); P=0.004). In Cox regression analysis, discharge "cold" or "wet" profile conveyed a 50% increased risk of death or rehospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: In advanced HF, the presence of orthopnea and elevated jugular venous pressure are useful to detect elevated PCWP, and a global assessment of inadequate perfusion ("cold" profile) is useful to detect reduced cardiac index. Hemodynamic profiles estimated from the discharge H&P identify patients at increased risk of early events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)170-177
Number of pages8
JournalCirculation. Heart failure
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2008
Externally publishedYes


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