Background: Current staging systems for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) have limited positive predictive value for identifying patients who will experience metastasis. Objective: To develop and validate a gene expression profile (GEP) test for predicting risk for metastasis in localized, high-risk cSCC with the goal of improving risk-directed patient management. Methods: Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary cSCC tissue and clinicopathologic data (n = 586) were collected from 23 independent centers in a prospectively designed study. A GEP signature was developed using a discovery cohort (n = 202) and validated in a separate, nonoverlapping, independent cohort (n = 324). Results: A prognostic 40-GEP test was developed and validated, stratifying patients with high-risk cSCC into classes based on metastasis risk: class 1 (low risk), class 2A (high risk), and class 2B (highest risk). For the validation cohort, 3-year metastasis-free survival rates were 91.4%, 80.6%, and 44.0%, respectively. A positive predictive value of 60% was achieved for the highest-risk group (class 2B), an improvement over staging systems, and negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity were comparable to staging systems. Limitations: Potential understaging of cases could affect metastasis rate accuracy. Conclusion: The 40-GEP test is an independent predictor of metastatic risk that can complement current staging systems for patients with high-risk cSCC.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We would like to thank the following individuals and centers for their contributions to this project: Drs Simon Yoo and Pedram Gerami (Northwestern University), Dr Travis Blalock (Emory University), Dr Rogerio Neves (Penn State University), Dr Michael Fazio (Michael J. Fazio, MD, Inc), Dr Jonathan Zager (Moffitt Cancer Center), Dr Michael Murphy (The Indiana Skin Cancer Center), Dr John Campana (Centura Health Research Center), Dr Julia Kasprzak (The Medical College of Wisconsin), Dr Pariser (Virginia Clinical Research), Dr James Lewis and Mr Andrew Ward (University of Tennessee Medical Center), Dr Diamondis Papadopoulos (MetroDerm PC), and Dr Federico A. Monzon, Dr Mary Hall, Dr Alison Fitzgerald, Dr Jeff Wilkinson, Ms Victoria Salas, and Ms Kelsey Carter (Castle Biosciences, Inc.). Funding sources: Supported by Castle Biosciences, Inc, which provided funding for tissue and clinical data retrieval to contributing centers. IRB approval status: Approved by IRBs before initiation. IRB granted a waiver of consent because of the nature of the disease under study.
Funding sources: Supported by Castle Biosciences, Inc, which provided funding for tissue and clinical data retrieval to contributing centers.
© 2020 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.
- cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma
- gene expression profile