Use of Repeated Measures Data Analysis for Field Trials with Annual and Perennial Crops

Paulo Pagliari, Fernando Shintate Galindo, Jeffrey Strock, Carl Rosen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Field studies conducted over time to collect any type of plant response to a set of treatments are often not treated as repeated measures data. The most used approaches for statistical analyses of this type of longitudinal data are based on separate analyses such as ANOVA, regres-sion, or time contrasts. In many instances, during the review of manuscripts, reviewers have asked researchers to treat year, for example, as a random effect and ignore the interactions between year and other main effects. One drawback of this approach is that the correlation between measurements taken on the same subject over time is ignored. Here, we show that avoiding the covariance between measurements can induce erroneous (e.g., no differences reported when they exist, or differences reported when they actually do not exist) inference of treatment effects. Another issue that has received little attention for statistical inference of multi‐year field experiments is the combina-tion of fixed, random, and repeated measurement effects in the same statistical model. This type of analysis requires a more in‐depth understanding of modeling error terms and how the statistical software used translates the statistical language of the given command into mathematical compu-tations. Ignoring possible significant interactions among repeated, fixed, and random effects might lead to an erroneous interpretation of the data set. In this manuscript, we use data from two field experiments that were repeated during two and three consecutive years on the same plots to illus-trate different modeling strategies and graphical tools with an emphasis on the use of mixed modeling techniques with repeated measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1783
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • agronomic field trials
  • Covariance structure
  • in season sampling
  • random effects
  • repeated measures
  • statistical analysis

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


Dive into the research topics of 'Use of Repeated Measures Data Analysis for Field Trials with Annual and Perennial Crops'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this