Purpose. The purpose of this study was (i) to develop glancing angle x-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) as a method for profiling phase transformations as a function of tablet depth; and (ii) to apply this technique to (a) study indomethacin crystallization during dissolution of partially amorphous indomethacin tablets and to (b) profile anhydrate → hydrate transformations during dissolution of theophylline tablets. Methods. The intrinsic dissolution rates of indomethacin and theophylline were determined after different pharmaceutical processing steps. Phase transformations during dissolution were evaluated by various techniques. Transformation in the bulk and on the tablet surface was characterized by conventional XRD and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Glancing angle XRD enabled us to profile these transformations as a function of depth from the tablet surface. Results. Pharmaceutical processing resulted in a decrease in crystallinity of both indomethacin and theophylline. When placed in contact with the dissolution medium, while indomethacin recrystallized, theophylline anhydrate rapidly converted to theophylline monohydrate. Due to intimate contact with the dissolution medium, drug transformation occurred to a greater extent at or near the tablet surface. Glancing angle XRD enabled us to depth profile the extent of phase transformations as a function of the distance from the tablet surface. The processed sample (both indomethacin and theophylline) transformed more rapidly than did the corresponding unprocessed drug. Several challenges associated with the glancing angle technique, that is, the effects of sorbed water, phase transformations during the experimental timescale, and the influence of phase transformation on penetration depth, were addressed. Conclusions. Increased solubility, and consequently dissolution rate, is one of the potential advantages of metastable phases. This advantage is negated if, during dissolution, the metastable to stable transformation rate ≫ dissolution rate. Glancing angle XRD enabled us to quantify and thereby profile phase transformations as a function of compact depth. The technique has potential utility in monitoring surface reactions, both chemical decomposition and physical transformations, in pharmaceutical systems.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - Jan 2004|
- Glancing angle
- X-ray powder diffractometry