Temporal and spatial variations in bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) can be indicative of several pathologies and confound current methods of assessing immediate changes in bone mineral remodeling. We present a novel dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) method to monitor MAT and marrow-corrected volumetric BMD (mcvBMD) throughout the body. Twenty-three cancellous skeletal sites in 20 adult female cadavers aged 40–80 years old were measured using DECT (80 and 140 kVp). vBMD was simultaneous recorded using QCT. MAT was further sampled using MRI. Thirteen lumbar vertebrae were then excised from the MRI-imaged donors and examined by microCT. After MAT correction throughout the skeleton, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between QCT-derived vBMD and DECT-derived mcvBMD results. McvBMD was highly heterogeneous with a maximum at the posterior skull and minimum in the proximal humerus (574 and 0.7 mg/cc, respectively). BV/TV and BMC have a nearly significant correlation with mcvBMD (r = 0.545, p = 0.057 and r = 0.539, p = 0.061, respectively). MAT assessed by DECT showed a significant correlation with MRI MAT results (r = 0.881, p < 0.0001). Both DECT- and MRI-derived MAT had a significant influence on uncorrected vBMD (r = −0.86 and r = −0.818, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively). Conversely, mcvBMD had no correlation with DECT- or MRI-derived MAT (r = 0.261 and r = 0.067). DECT can be used to assess MAT while simultaneously collecting mcvBMD values at each skeletal site. MAT is heterogeneous throughout the skeleton, highly variable, and should be accounted for in longitudinal mcvBMD studies. McvBMD accurately reflects the calcified tissue in cancellous bone.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institute of Health grants (1R01CA154491-01; RO3 AR055333-02), National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (1K12-HD055887-01), by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health Award Number 8UL1TR000114-02, and Cancer Center Support grant P30 CA77398. Other grant support includes the Minnesota Medical Foundation and seed grants from the university (Academic Health Center, Grant in Aid, Masonic Cancer Center breast cancer research). Susanta K Hui is a scholar of the BIRCWH (Building Interdisciplinary Careers in Women?s Health) program. This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Core to Core Program (23003). Karen Hansen serves as a medical monitor and consultant to Deltanoid Pharmaceuticals. All other authors have no conflicts of interest. The authors wish to thank the women who donated their bodies for the advancement of education and research. Karen Hansen is a medical monitor and consultant to Deltanoid Pharmaceuticals. Luke Arentsen, Masashi Yagi, Yutaka Takahashi, Ryan Shanley, Angela McArthur, Patrick Bolan, Taiki Magome, Douglas Yee, Jerry Froelich, and Susanta Hui declare no conflicts of interest.
- Dual-energy CT
- Marrow-corrected bone mineral density
- Whole-body imaging