Turbulence is an important factor in the assessment of stenotic disease and a possible causative mechanism for thromboembolism. Previous Doppler studies of turbulence have typically used whole-blood preparations or suspensions of erythrocytes. Recently, a water-glycerol based blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for use in Doppler ultrasound studies. This fluid has desirable ultrasound properties but it has not previously been described during in vitro investigations of turbulence intensity. We report on investigations of grid-generated and constrained-jet turbulence in an in vitro test system. The BMF was found to generate significant levels of turbulence during steady flow at physiological flow rates, producing turbulent patterns in the distal region that were consistent with previous studies. Turbulence intensity increased significantly with flow rate (p < 0.005) for both the constrained jet and the constrained grid. Based on our observations, we conclude that a water-glycerol based BMF provides a suitable working fluid during in vitro investigations of turbulence using Doppler ultrasound. (E-mail: email@example.com).
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology|
|State||Published - Jul 2008|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge ATL (Advanced Technology Laboratories, Philips, Seattle, WA, USA) for the UM8 ultrasound unit. Financial support has been provided by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (grant no. T-5135). Vessel models were fabricated with support from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (group grant no. GR-14973). Drs. Holdsworth and Steinman are Career Investigators, supported by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario.
- Backscattered power
- Blood flow velocity
- Blood-mimicking fluid
- Doppler ultrasound
- In vitro modeling
- Turbulence intensity