Purpose: To describe the experience with a new lipid-based amphotericin product (amphotericin B colloidal dispersion or ABCD) in children with fever and neutropenia who are at high risk for fungal infection. Patients and Methods: Forty-nine children with febrile neutropenia were treated in a prospective, randomized trial comparing ABCD with amphotericin B. An additional 70 children with presumed or proven fungal infection were treated with 5 different open-label studies of ABCD. Patients were registered into these studies for reasons of: 1) failure to respond to amphotericin B; 2) development of nephrotoxicity or preexisting renal impairment; or 3) willingness to participate in a dose-escalation study. Extensive data detailing response and toxicity were collected from each patient. Results: In the randomized trial, there was significantly less renal toxicity in the children receiving ABCD than in those receiving amphotericin B (12.0% vs. 52.4% [P = 0.003]). Other adverse symptoms were not significantly different. In the additional open-label studies, although 80% of patients receiving ABCD reported some adverse symptom, the majority of these were infusion related, and nephrotoxicity was reported in only 12% of these patients. Conclusions: ABCD was well-tolerated at doses up to 5 times greater then those usually tolerated with amphotericin B. Renal toxicity was markedly less than expected, and there were no other unexpected severe toxicities. Further randomized studies are needed to further define the role of this and other liposomal products in children.
- Fungal infection