Use of a chewing device to perform a mass balance on chewing gum components

Andrea J. Krause, Lulu S. Henson, Gary A. Reineccius

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


A mechanical device was fabricated to simulate mastication of chewing gum; this device allowed us to perform a mass balance on the volatiles and non-volatiles added to chewing gum during simulated mastication. Model volatiles (ethyl butyrate, isoamyl acetate and limonene) released from the gum into the gas phase were quantified using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). The chewing device was equipped to simulate salivation (saliva in) and swallowing (saliva out) using water as simulated saliva. The model compounds released into simulated saliva were extracted and quantified using gas chromatography. Sugar alcohols (sorbitol and xylitol) and glycerin were quantified using HPLC-MS. High-potency sweeteners (acesulfame-K, sucralose, rebaudioside A and sodium saccharin) were quantified using UPLC-MS. The model volatiles initially added to the chewing gum were distributed in two or three fractions: the masticated gum (43-84%); the simulated saliva (ethyl butyrate and isoamyl acetate were recovered from the water at 9-11% and 14-17%, respectively) and the gas phase (ethyl butyrate and isoamyl acetate were recovered from the gas phase at 7-10% and 29-40%, respectively). Limonene could not be detected in the simulated saliva, and >80% remained in the gum after mastication. Almost all (>90%) of the water-soluble polyols and high-potency sweeteners were extracted from the gum into the simulated saliva by mastication. Given the presented validation of the device, we feel the device could be used to evaluate and potentially screen and evaluate ingredients in chewing gum formulations. By using a device to circumvent the variability of human subjects, a more consistent and efficient throughput of samples could be achieved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-54
Number of pages8
JournalFlavour and Fragrance Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011


  • Chewing device
  • Chewing gum
  • Flavour release
  • Mass balance
  • PTR-MS


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