The World Health Organization recognizes access to clean and safe toilets as crucial for public health. This study explored U.S. adolescent and adult cisgender women’s lived experiences accessing toilets in schools, workplaces, and public spaces. As part of the Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (PLUS) Research Consortium, we conducted 44 focus groups with female participants (n = 360; ages 11-93). Focus groups were stratified by age (11-14, 15-17, 18-25, 26-44, 45-64, 65+) and conducted across 7 geographically diverse U.S. sites from July 2017-April 2018. Using a transdisciplinary approach, we conducted conventional qualitative coding informed by our PLUS conceptual framework and used content analysis processes to identify salient themes. Across settings, toilet access was restricted by “gatekeepers” (i.e., individuals who control access to toilets). In contrast, self-restricting toilet use (deciding not to use the toilet despite biologic need to urinate) was based on internalized norms to prioritize school and job responsibilities over urination. In public spaces, self-restricting use was largely in response to lack of cleanliness. Across the life course, participants perceived gender disparities in the ability to easily access public toilets. Further research is needed to determine if and how these factors impact bladder health across the life course.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||International journal of environmental research and public health|
|State||Published - Sep 1 2019|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: The Prevention of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (PLUS) Research Consortium is supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)—National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) by cooperative agreements (grants U01DK106786, U01DK106853, U01DK106858, U01DK106898, U01DK106893, U01DK106827, U01DK106908, U01DK106892). Additional funding from: National Institute on Aging, NIH Office on Research in Women’s Health and the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science.
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Bladder health
- Focus groups
- Qualitative research