Purpose: Infectious diseases that often follow geographical distribution patterns are increasingly crossing such boundaries, aided by human travel and commerce. These pose a new challenge to physicians who are required to diagnose previously unseen conditions and address drug-resistant organisms. We review some such common infections. Methods: A literature review was performed for six common urological infections and a narrative review based on recent publications on these infections was compiled. Results: In Urology, some infections that are now crossing geographical boundaries include Brucellosis, Schistosomiasis, Tuberculosis, Filariasis, Hydatidosis and emphysematous pyelonephritis. Brucellosis, a zoonotic infection, is common in the Mediterranean areas, Asia, South America and Africa. Infection can involve all parts of the genitourinary tract. Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease, is particularly common in Sub-Saharan Africa and may have bacterial superinfection. Voiding symptoms are common and bladder carcinoma may develop. Tuberculosis affects almost every organ in the body and in the male genital system, often presents with abscesses, nodules, ulcers and infertility that is difficult to manage. Filariasis is caused by two species of worms and is transmitted through a bite from a mosquito carrying larvae of the worm. It causes lymphatic obstruction leading to scrotal edema, hydrocoele to elephantiasis of scrotum. Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a life-threatening suppurative necrotizing infection of the renal parenchyma. While not being geographically limited, it is more common in developing areas with poor health care access. Genitourinary hydatidosis is a rare disease that is associated mainly with renal involvement in the genitourinary tract. Large cysts with destruction of renal parenchyma may be found. Conclusions: Although uncommon, these urological infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and awareness in all healthcare settings is now an essential requirement.
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- Urinary tract