Objective: Foetuses and neonates of women who use tobacco are exposed to nicotine and tobacco-derived carcinogens. We determined the relationship between urine biomarkers of tobacco toxicant exposure postpartum and in the neonates of Alaska Native (AN) women, comparing smokers and smokeless tobacco (ST) users, including iqmik, a homemade ST product. Methods: AN women, including 36 smokers, 9 commercial ST and 16 iqmik users their neonates participated. Urine from the woman at the time of delivery and her neonate’s first urine were analysed for cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3) pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL), a tobacco-specific carcinogen biomarker. Results: Maternal urine cotinine and neonatal urine cotinine were strongly correlated in all tobacco use groups (r from 0.83 to 0.9, p < 0.002). Correlations between maternal cotinine and neonatal NNAL were moderately strong for cigarettes and commercial smokeless but weaker for iqmik users (r 0.73, 0.6 and 0.36, respectively). Conclusion: Correlations between maternal and neonatal biomarkers of tobacco toxicant exposure vary, dependent on tobacco product use. Significance: This study provides novel data on biomarkers of tobacco exposure among postpartum AN women and their neonates. The results could be useful to guide future epidemiological studies of health risks associated with use of various tobacco products during pregnancy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Cancer Institute [U54 CA153605]; National Institute on Drug Abuse [P30 012393].
- cigarette smoking