Volumetric muscle loss (VML) resulting from extremity trauma presents chronic and persistent functional deficits which ultimately manifest disability. Acellular biological scaffolds, or decellularized extracellular matrices (ECMs), embody an ideal treatment platform due to their current clinical use for soft tissue repair, off-the-shelf availability, and zero autogenous donor tissue burden. ECMs have been reported to promote functional skeletal muscle tissue remodeling in small and large animal models of VML injury, and this conclusion was reached in a recent clinical trial that enrolled 13 patients. However, numerous other pre-clinical reports have not observed ECM-mediated skeletal muscle regeneration. The current study was designed to reconcile these discrepancies. The capacity of ECMs to orchestrate functional muscle tissue remodeling was interrogated in a porcine VML injury model using unbiased assessments of muscle tissue regeneration and functional recovery. Here, we show that VML injury incites an overwhelming inflammatory and fibrotic response that leads to expansive fibrous tissue deposition and chronic functional deficits, which ECM repair does not augment.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the USAISR Veterinary Service and Comparative Pathology Branches, Dr. Lisa Ji and Mrs. Monica Jalomo for technical support during these experiments. This work was supported by the Clinical and Rehabilitative Medicine Research Program, United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command.
© 2017 The Author(s).
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article